Replacement Theology suggests that the Church has replaced Israel. It is suggested that all those who obey the new covenant are Israel. This position appeals to Scripture by claiming that the Church is the new Israel. For instance…
And if you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham’s seed, heirs according to the promise.
Galatians 3:29 (HCSB)
May peace come to all those who follow this standard, and mercy to the Israel of God!
Galatians 6:16 (HCSB)
There are several problems with this position. The simplest way to refute Replacement Theology is to understand that the Bible never uses the terms Church and Israel to refer to the same group of people. For example, in 1 Corinthians 10:32 (HCSB), it reads, “Give no offense to the Jews or the Greeks or the church of God.”
Ephesians 2:11-16 clearly explains that the Church and Israel are two groups of people. The Church has responded to Jesus as Messiah while Israel has not.
The clearest reference to the new covenant in the Old Testament is in Jeremiah 31:31-37 which promises both a new covenant and the continued existence of Israel as a nation. Paul confirms a future for Israel in Romans 11:26 where he tells that “all Israel will be saved.” Whether this refers to spiritual salvation or physical deliverance from the Great Tribulation it is still clear that this refers to future plans for Israel. There will also be a time when Israel comes to see the Jesus is their Messiah and they chose to crucify Him, (Zechariah 12:10.)
Even with all of that, the strongest indictment against Replacement Theology is this: If God has replaced Israel with the Church that must mean that God has changed His mind about those covenant promises to Israel. If God has changed His mind about His covenant promises to Israel then why should we think He will not change His mind about salvation promises to the Church? The position of replacement theology cannot be accepted because it attacks the character of God.